The Gaia-ESO Survey: detection and characterisation of single-line spectroscopic binaries
Context. Multiple stellar systems play a fundamental role in the formation and evolution of stellar populations in galaxies. Recent and ongoing large ground-based multi-object spectroscopic surveys significantly increase the sample of spectroscopic binaries (SBs) allowing analyses of their statistical properties.
Aims: We investigate the repeated spectral observations of the Gaia-ESO Survey internal data release 5 (GES iDR5) to identify and characterise SBs with one visible component (SB1s) in fields covering mainly the discs, the bulge, the CoRot fields, and some stellar clusters and associations.
Methods: A statistical χ2-test is performed on spectra of the iDR5 subsample of approximately 43 500 stars characterised by at least two observations and a signal-to-noise ratio larger than three. In the GES iDR5, most stars have four observations generally split into two epochs. A careful estimation of the radial velocity (RV) uncertainties is performed. Our sample of RV variables is cleaned from contamination by pulsation- and/or convection-induced variables using Gaia DR2 parallaxes and photometry. Monte-Carlo simulations using the SB9 catalogue of spectroscopic orbits allow to estimate our detection efficiency and to correct the SB1 rate to evaluate the GES SB1 binary fraction and its relation to effective temperature and metallicity.
Results: We find 641 (resp., 803) FGK SB1 candidates at the 5σ (resp., 3σ) level. The maximum RV differences range from 2.2 km s-1 at the 5σ confidence level (1.6 km s-1 at 3σ) to 133 km s-1 (in both cases). Among them a quarter of the primaries are giant stars and can be located as far as 10 kpc. The orbital-period distribution is estimated from the RV standard-deviation distribution and reveals that the detected SB1s probe binaries with log P[d] ⪅ 4. We show that SB1s with dwarf primaries tend to have shorter orbital periods than SB1s with giant primaries. This is consistent with binary interactions removing shorter period systems as the primary ascends the red giant branch. For two systems, tentative orbital solutions with periods of 4 and 6 d are provided. After correcting for detection efficiency, selection biases, and the present-day mass function, we estimate the global GES SB1 fraction to be in the range 7-14% with a typical uncertainty of 4%. A small increase of the SB1 frequency is observed from K- towards F-type stars, in agreement with previous studies. The GES SB1 frequency decreases with metallicity at a rate of (-9 ± 3)% dex-1 in the metallicity range -2.7 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.6. This anticorrelation is obtained with a confidence level higher than 93% on a homogeneous sample covering spectral types FGK and a large range of metallicities. When the present-day mass function is accounted for, this rate turns to (-4 ± 2)% dex-1 with a confidence level higher than 88%. In addition we provide the variation of the SB1 fraction with metallicity separately for F, G, and K spectral types, as well as for dwarf and giant primaries.
Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr(ftp://220.127.116.11) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/635/A155
Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 188.B-3002 and 193.B-0936. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.
Publication : Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 635, id.A155, 26 pp.
DOI : 10.1051/0004-6361/201935819
Bibcode : 2020A&A...635A.155M
Keywords : binaries: spectroscopic; techniques: radial velocities; methods: data analysis; methods: statistical; Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics